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/\T WORK' 




Volume VI Number 6 


Editorial John Collier 1 

Indians Urged To Make Specific Wills 3 

The Indian Mailman 4 

Pamphlet Appraising Current Indian Policy Is 

Issued 9 

Cooperative Marketing Brings Better Cattle 

Prices At Blackf eet , Montana 12 

Lima Conference Proposes International Indian 

Institute 14 

Reorganization News 15 

Cover Page Picture 15 

Big Missouri ■ & Winter Count Lucy Kramer Cohen 15 

Seminole Agency To Be Moved To Fort Myers, 

Florida 20 

Protestant Missionary Groups Meet At Indian 

Office 21 

Pueblo Governor Expresses Satisfaction With 

Tear ' s Program 22 

Master Land Status Maps Of Five Civilized 

Tribes Area Progresses 23 

Generations Of Service 24 

CCC-ID On Wheels 26 

Some Thoughts On Indian Service Policy 27 

Camels: The Story Of A Long-Ago Experiment 28 

Indian Service Road Program Emphasizes Roads 

For Use R. L. Whitcomb 30 

On The High Seas 31 

Indians Share In Determining Relief Policies 

At Rosebud, South Dakota 32 

CCC-ID Completes Irrigation Projects At Mis- 
sion Agency, California 33 

A Challenging Book On Soil Conservation Phoebe O'Neall Far is 36 

Clark Wissler Writes Recollections Of Ex- 
periences In Indian Country William F. Zuckert, Jr 37 

Some Of Fort Peck' s CCC-ID Machinery 37 

Indian Service Hospitals: Their Part In The 

Indian Health Program J . R . McGibony 38 

CCC-ID Work At Shawnee Progresses 41 

Washington Office Visitors 41 

The Buggerman Dance George A. MacPherson 42 

Cotton Cloth 750 Years Old 43 

One Pima 4-H Boy ' s Record 44 

James Todome , Well -Known Kiow,a, Dies 44 

From CCC-ID Reports 45 



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ANews Sheet for INDIANS and the INDIAN SERVICE 



(Excerpts From A Talk By Hon- John Collier, Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, Before the Washington Office Employees At 
4:15 P.M., January 3, 1939.) 

This is just a little talking things over "because it is New Year's- 
New Year's remembers and foresees. The Indian Office looks further hack in 
time than almost any Bureau or Office of the Federal Government. We certainly 
are dealing with a more remote human past - living past - than any other oper- 
ating division of the Federal Government- We are looking forward, too, he- 
cause I believe it is not an exaggeration to say that there is no other agency 
of the Federal Government attempting to do as great a variety of things that 
belong to the future - that point to the future - as the Indian Office is at- 
tempting to do. 

Recently I have been reading and re-reading this little pamphlet ^ 
"The New Day for the Indians," which most of you have not yet received.* It is 
a pamphlet issued by some fifty-odd sponsors, dealing with the Indian work of 
recent years. It's a very fine piece of critical appraisal of what we are all 
doing now. And there are two things that impress one as he reads this document. 
It draws a picture, dramatic in its simplicity, of a certain effort reaching 
through and through Indian Service and through and through Indian life. A 
great, consecutive, growing, simple effort. And then it shows how all kinds 
of collateral efforts tie into this central one - how credit ties in, and the 
work of the schools, the work of the doctors and the nurses, the arts and 
crafts, the tribal organizations, the agency operations, the law and the order 
activity, and how they all fit into the central stream of our effort, which is 
the stream of trying to help the Indians to rise in their own individuality, 
to stand on their own feet, to do their own work, 8nd to establish their own 
destiny. A complicated weave, working into a single human pattern. 

*See Fage 9 : "~ 

As one reads this little document, he sees in the Indian Bureau a 
prototype, almost, of human society. So many-sided are the operations, yet 
they are not disconnected. They are not detached, land locked items of work, 
hut are parts of the one stream of endeavor toward the rehabilitation, the per- 
petuation of a human race- We really are taking part in something exciting and 
worth living for. 

Something else one gets as he reviews the intricate activities of the 
Indian Bureau. It is this, that in recent years the volume of new enterprise 
has multiplied almost immeasurably . The Indian Service is doing a. greater vol- 
ume of work than ever before, and many times a greater amount of innovation, 
change, initiative, - and every change and initiative imposes new stresses upon 
the personnel- If one comes down merely to the flow of correspondence, one 
finds that a one-third increase in volume of business is being carried by a 
personnel practically no greater than it was before the increase started- I 
share the impression of many others in our Divisions, that the Indian Service 
is getting out of its personnel a very fine yield of work. The personnel is 
carrying heavy burdens, and carrying them not only laborioiisly but intelligent- 
ly and even enthusiast ically. There is morale in the Indian Service, a widely- 
shared feeling that we are going somewhere. It is the kind of impulse that 
will flow on and go on yielding the fruits it is yielding now, when everyone 
of us ephemeral leaders has passed from the scene. 

There is something apart from our immediate work-concerns that one 
might say on this particular New Tear. Almost every thoughtful person is carry- 
ing the shadow of the world in his mind. It is a terrible time in the world. 
A time of infinite, dark uncertainty. We hear people say again and again that 
it is the worst time the world ever saw and a time when life is hard to live 
significantly or happily. ... 

But for us in America - is not our trouble a different one from this? 
Is it not that each one of us really is protected and exiled from the great 
hardships, from the terrors, the excitements, the emergencies, the pains that 
are the conditions of greater life? Here in our secure society of the America 
of these immediate years, most men and women have no means to implement any of 
their greater hopes. No means to genuinely know that they are irresistibly 
needed. . • . 

Not so for us engaged in the Indian task. Here is a prolonged, many- 
sided and yet unitary social endeavor aimed toward a great result which is at- 
tainable. Think what it means, in this world now, to be a part of such an en- 
deavor. I am speaking not only of our work here, but of the rising Indian ef- 
fort through the whole Hemisphere - the effort by and among and for the thirty 
million Indians. We in the Indian work of our own country have an opportunity- 
unique indeed. The minority with which we work is so small that it menaces no 
other group or class. We have the legal authority, the resources, the tradi- 
tion of service, and the program of life-release among our third of a million 
Indians. And we can know that whatever we - the Indians with our help - may 
forge out in better government, more significant cooperative living, the bring- 
ing together of the useful, the beautiful and the good, will be valid i.n one 
way or another and sooner or later for all of the thirty million Indians. And 

it will enter into the whole life of the nations, too- We can view ourselves 
as pioneers, as discoverers, as workers in a true renaissance, as workers in a 
laboratory of Indian life which can serve the entire Hemisphere- 

So let us believe in a fortunate year ahead, and my last word is my 
first - that Indian Service is getting good work from its employees here at 
Washington and in the field, because they realize the significance of the pro- 
found task in which they are engaged. 

I wish for every employee of the Service a very happy New Year. 


The disastrous results of the allotment system, a9 complicated by 
successive divisions of trust lands among generations of heirs, have been de- 
scribed many times in "Indians At Work": the subdivision and re-subdivision of 
allotments into shares too minute to farm or graze; the multiplication of the 
burdens on agency staffs in administering the land; diminishing returns to the 
Indians ■ 

Here is one specific preventive remedy - one which cannot smooth out 
ownership already tangled, but which can prevent worse snarls. It is in the 
ronking and wording of Indian wills. 

If an Indian owning restricted land makes no will, his land is divided, 
under state law, among all his legal heirs. He may own ten acres, in several 
scattered tracts, which must be divided among, let us say, ten or fifteen broth- 
ers, sisters, children, nieces, and nephews, some of whose whereabouts may not 
even be known. And if an Indian makes a will containing specific bequests, and 
then adds the phrase, "and the remainder to my heirs at law", the same procedure 
of searching out heirs, re-dividing what is probably a minute and non-productive 
and possibly even troublesome interest in land among a group of relatives who 
cannot use the land as a unit> must go on. 

In a recent circular the Indian Office urges Indians to give careful 
thought to making wills which will keep the land in usable form, and which will 
make it possible for their heirs to use the land productively. The Indian Of- 
fice and its workers must not and will not influence Indians in their choice of 
heirs or the proportions of the estate which each heir is to receive. But it 
can rightly emphasize what many Indians already know and are putting into ef- 
fect in making their wills: that land which is divided into minute fractions 
does no one any good; that the same land, kept in usable blocks, may give some- 
one a chance at a livelihood. 


Steel Drawers In Stacks Of 

Archives Building, Washington, 

D. C, Where Earliest Indian 

Correspondence Is Housed. 

there was a pronounced rise in 
by a keener interest in Indian 

With each passing month, the post- 
man totes a heavier load at the Indian Office 
in Washington. From every part of the country 
and every corner of the globe requests for 
every conceivable type of information mount 
daily. Writers, professional men, editors, 
politicians, save -the- Indian reformers, and 
cranks are corresponding with the Indian Of- 
fice as never before. A new interest is 
stirring on the part of the public in the re- 
surgent cultural and economic life of the 
modern American Indian • 

The figures tell the story: the 
number of letters received by the Indian Of- 
fice in the first six months of 1938 was ap- 
proximately 286,400- Five years ago, for the 
same period, 203,000 letters were received. 
This shows an annual increment of about 33,000 
pieces of over the last five years, since 
the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act. 
There are at present about 13,800 more letters 
per month coming into the Indian Office than 
there were before 1933. In general, before 
1933, there was a steady rise in Indian cor- 
respondence in keeping with the regularly in- 
creased functions of government . After 1933 

the rate of increase that only can be explained 

regeneration generally. 

The oldest Indian mail records date from August, 1800. The correspond- 
ence regarding Indians between 1789 - when the War Department administered du- 
ties "relative to Indian Affairs" - and 1800 was destroyed by fire- From 1800 
to 1824 an average of 12 to 15 letters a month came in. By 1824 this had in- 
creased to about sixty or seventy and continued on the increase to 1849 when the 
Bureau of Indian 'Affairs was placed under the jurisdiction of the newly- created 
Interior Department. 

In the National Archives those early letters are carefully preserved- 
In them, many a note familiar to the Indian worker is struck. In 1800 pretty 
much the same things were on the Indian's mind as are today. In old-fashioned 
phraseology the faded and yellowed letters tell of droughts burning up crops, 
of stolen horses and cattle, of the perennial need for carts, boats, wheels, 
harness, sleighs, and so forth. There shines from these frayed documents the 
tragic story of white land hunger and of the eternal infringement of the flood 
of white settlers. There are pleas for assistance from headmen to combat inva- 
sions by unfriendly tribes. There is routine correspondence dealing with trea- 
ties, boundary adjustments, cattle and powder purchases and the like. Then too, 

there is a good crop of letters asking the government to remove shady character's 
and escaped convicts from their reservation havens- One gambler, in a Cherokee 
complaint, is described as settling at a "place called Muscle Shoals •" One 
Cherokee somewhat naively disburdens himself to the '.Tar Department officials 
of his sorrow that a man had run off with his wife, a "pail complected" woman. 

Today letters come from everywhere and ask everything about Indians. 
Broadly speaking, requests for information come under two heads: the serious 
and the frivolous. All are given full attention and as exact replies as pos- 
sible are in every case sent out. 

People write in to inquire as to their ancestors whom they believe to 
have been killed in early Indian wars. Writers write in to check up on points 
of local color for stories they are planning or for data to be used in analyti- 
cal articles. One English author, who has never been to the United States, 
writes in for a "full" description of a "typical" reservation- Feature writers 
seek advice on marketing stories and illustrations- Scientific writers, often 
in search of obscure archaeological information, turn to the Indian Office. 
One such writer wanted to know whether there were maps of Indian mounds in 
Montana by which the aboriginal inhabitants used to reckon the seasons. Many 
inquiries are received as to such matters as the Indian sign language, totemic 
devices, or art motifs used in Indian pottery and basketry. In fact, inquiries 
come as to anything from the condition of reservation roads to the price of In- 
dian blankets . 

Sometimes people will write to the Indian Office to settle bets or 
controversies. An examole of this was the lawyer from Florida who wrote in to 
ask whether or not the Seminoles in that state were still officially at war 
with the United States 
Theatrical booking a- 
gencies frequently 
write the Indian Of- 
fice for permission 
to put on Indian acts 
in shows and fairs. 
Movie companies often 
ask permission to cast 
Indians for produc- 

While the 
purely official let- 
ters and letters on 
detailed points of in- 
formation continue 
apace, the underlying 
cause of the increase 
in communications to 
the Indian Office is 
the Indian Reorganiza- 
tion Act and the new 
policies involved in 
its implementation. 

Cavalry Defiles Past The Archives Building, 

Washington, D. C, Where Early Indian 

Mail Is Preserved. 



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Conservation activities on Indian reservations, the preservation of Indian 
cultural values, the increase in Indian land holdings, Indian experiments in 
self-government, housing, resettlement, and range and forest preservation are 
all typical subjects found in the present influx of mail now straining the 
capacity of the files of the Indian Office. 

It has long been the attitude on the part of the public to regard the 
American Indian as a people somehow mysteriously wilting away, whose racial val- 
ues were being surely but inexorably submerged under the pressure of white civ- 
ilization. A dawning realization that this is not the case shows clearly in 
the nature of the letters that pour into the Indian Office. 

People are coming to understand that the Indian is not a vanishing 
American, that he is beginning to stand on his own feet economically and poli- 
tically, and that the time-honored values of his heritage are flourishing as 
seldom before. Even foreign press services and syndicates, which heretofore 
have contented themselves with desultory requests for data on the American In- 
dian as an "oppressed" minority or as an historical curiosity, are now evinc- 
ing an increased interest in the modern Indian and the government's efforts to 
help him take a vital place in the national life. 

The Mail Is "Put To Bed." 



A pamphlet entitled "A New Day Tor The Indians" appraising the pres- 
ent Indian Service administration was released December 27 by a group of pri- 
vate organizations and individuals interested in Indian affairs. 

Sponsoring the study are fifty-six of the country's leading authori- 
ties on Indian affairs, eminent anthropologists and individuals interested in 
their welfare and prominent Indians. 

The survey was compiled under the supervision of Oliver La Farge, 
novelist and President of the American Association on Indian Affairs; Dr. W. 
Carson Ryan, of the Carnegie Foundation, President of the Progressive Education 
Association and formerly Director of Education of the U. S. Indian Service; and 
Dr. Jay B. Nash of New York University, formerly in the service of the present 
Indian Office administration. 

Survey Reports Encouraging Results Of New Policy 

"A new world of opportunity has been opened to all Indian tribes," 
the survey discloses, H by the development of three cardinal principles of pres- 
ent-day Indian administration: Indian self-government, the conservation of In- 
dian lands and resources, and socially -directed credit. On almost every reserva- 
tion today, one finds the beginnings of constructive achievement, and hope for 
the future where there was only hopeless regret for the past ." 

The " Old " Versus The " New " 

A drataatic contrast between the old system and the new under the In- 
dian Reorganization Act is pointed out in the appraisal of reforms leading to 
the "spiritual regeneration of the Indian." 

Under the traditional arrangement, says the pamphlet, Indian lands 
were broken up by individual property ownership, enterprise was dormant be- 
cause of lack of tools and credit, and soil resources were exploited without 
plan. As result of the new policy, Indian land holdings have been increased 
by 2,780,000 acres in the past four years, $4,000,000 in credit for farm ma- 
chinery and other improvements have been supplied to tribes and cooperatives, 
and lar-reaching plans for conserving land, range, timber and soil are being 
carried out . 

"The credit program," according to the survey, "if supplemented by a 
sound land program, is likely to establish for the first time a stable basis 
of economic independence for many tribes which have lived on the edge of star- 
vat i on • " 

A New Bill Of Rights For The Indian 

Restoration of basic civil liberties to the Indians has been signifi- 
cant under the Act, the study shows- "The rights of Indians to their own lan- 
guages, ceremonies, arts and traditions are now respected. Gag and sedition 
laws hare been repealed and religious and cultural liberty affirmed. The power 
of the Indian Bureau over Indians has been curbed. The system of justice for 
Indians has been reorganized and safeguarded from official control of Indian 
courts, whose jurisdiction is carefully defined." 

In the past, Indian death rates were double that of the general popu- 
lation and Indian education was dominated by boarding schools which tended to 
break up Indian family life. In the new order, the death rate of Indians has 
decreased by 12 per cent, chiefly through efforts to control tuberculosis and 
other diseases; new hospitals have been built and others enlarged. The poorest 
boarding schools have been closed and seventy-four new days schools opened, 
thus reuniting thousands of Indian families. Vocational training has been ex- 
panded, a loan fund for higher education established, and community day schools 
for adult activities are increasingly used. 

"Seventy per cent of the current budget of the Indian Service is ex- 
pended upon social service and permanent public improvements in the fields of 
health, education, road building, irrigation and relief." 

Two -Thirds Of Indians Are Self -Governing 

The Indian's fight for survival as a race has been considerably aided, 
the study reveals, by the marked degree of self-government he has recently at- 
tained. Under the Act, all Indian tribes organizing under its terms were given 
the final power of approval or vote over the disposition of all tribal assets 
and the various tribes were authorized to take over positive control of their 
own resources. According to the survey, 252,211 Indians, or more than two thirds 
of the total 337,000 in the United States and Alaska, are now living under the 
protection of the Act, following an approving vote of their tribes. 

To indicate the practical effects of the Indian Reorganization Act, 
the experiences in five typical Indian communities are described in the survey's 
report. The "case history" of the Mescal ero Apaches of New Mexico pictures the 
tribe in 1934 as "irresponsible beggars broken in spirit, living in brush tepees 
or board shacks in the utmost squalor ." After the Apaches adopted a tribal con- 
stitution under the Act, in 1936, the tribe entered into a planned program of 
economic rehabilitation, borrowed $242,000 from the government for livestock, 
equipment and new homes, and organized cooperative cattle and sheep associations. 
Today, the report states, "they have comfortable homes, their children go to 
well-run schools, they have herds on a thousand hills and are rapidly learning 
to manage their own affairs. Of the indebtedness, $58,000 has already been re- 
paid and the tribe will be able to clean up the remainder rapidly and easily." 


Similar experiences are related of the Flathead Indians in Montana 
who are now developing the first giant power site in the world made by Indians. 
The Jicarilla Apaches of New Mexico, supposed to be extremely backward and 
hopelessly organized, today are operating the first Indian Tribal General Store. 

Opposition To New Policies 

Opposition to the policies of the Indian Reorganization Act by about 
one-third of the Indian tribes, it was found, "is based on erroneous fears 
that it will in some way take away individuals' ownership of their allotments 
or that it will weaken or abrogate treaty rights." Specific objections to the 
Act in operation seems to be founded not upon criticism of the Act itself but 
upon details of its operations by the particular tribe concerned. 

"One legitimate cause for complaint in some areas is the domination 
of the full-bloods by the more numerous half-bloods. Another difficulty on 
two or three reservations has been dissatisfaction with the elected tribal of- 
ficers who, in their inexperience, have shown themselves to be arrogant in 
small matters with their own people, unmindful of minority rights or largely 
concerned with staying in office." Opposition tribal leaders declare that under 
the Act, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs is given more authority than before 
to govern the reservations; that Bureau control is "nothing but slavery", tha'c 
the Act fosters a "communistic government" and "frustrates the opportunity of 
the Indian to enter American life as a citizen." 

Achievements Only A " Good Beginning" 

"While substantial progress has been made by the present administra- 
tion in the removal of injustices and anachronisms," the report of the investi- 
gation declares, "the achievements represent only a good beginning of a liberal 
Indian program. We must recognize that the administration of Indian affairs 
is not yet something of which white Americans can be proud." 

What is still needed, according to the survey, is repeal of dozens 
of obsolete and oppressive statutes still on the books which deprive Indians 
of their civil rights. "Oppressive state legislation and local rulings still 
deny Indians in several states such elementary rights as the franchise and the 
right to attend white schools." Congress is urged to "respect promises of 
self-government" and cease cutting down the appropriations which the Indian 
Reorganization Act authorized for land purchase, credit, loan funds and expenses 
of tribal organization. Aid to organized Indian tribes, through grants of addi- 
tional legal and financial powers, in order to attain effective self-government, 
is strongly recommended. 

Responsibility for final adjudication and settlement of hundreds of 
broken treaties with Indian tribes is laid at the feet of Congress and the ad- 
ministration, which are urged to "remove this blot upon our national honor." 


Sponsorship of Study 

In a foreword, the sponsors point out that while they "do not neces- 
sarily approve all that has been done by the Bureau of Indian Affairs," they 
endorse the principle of the Reorganization Act. "We submit the material to 
the American public with an urgent plea for sympathetic understanding of a 
difficult problem of adjustment between two conflicting civilizations." 

Sponsoring the study are fifty-six of the country's leading author- 
ities on Indian affairs, eminent anthropologists and individuals interested in 
their welfare and prominent Indians • Among those signing the report are former 
Senator William Gibbs McAdoo of California; Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, U. S. National 
Museum, Washington, D. C. ; Professor William F. Ogburn, University of Chicago; 
Father John M. Cooper of the Catholic University of America; former Congressman 
Edgar Howard, co-author of the Wheeler -Howard Bill; Professor Franz Boas of 
Columbia University; B. D. Weeks, President of Bacone College for Indians; 
Huston Thompson, former chairman of the Federal Trade Commission; Ben Dwight, 
Choctaw, President of the Indian Intertribal Council; and John Joseph Mathews, 
Osage author. The complete list follows: 

Pablo Abeita; Louis Bartlett; Dr. Ruth Benedict; Bruce Bliven; Leonard 
Bloomfield; Dr. Franz Boas; Dr. Ray A. Brown; Dr. Fay Cooper-Cole; John M. Cooper; 
George P. Clements; Harold S. Colt on; Dr. Byron Cummings; William A. Durant; Ben 
Dwight; Herbert R. Edwards; Dr. Haven Emerson; Edwin R. Embree; Howard S. Gans; 
Robert Gessner; Rev. Philip Gordon; John J. Hannon; Dr. John P. Harrington; Dr. 
M. Raymond Harrington; Dr. Melville J. Herskovits; Dr. Frederic W. Hinrichs, Jr.; 
F. W. Hodge; Hon. Edgar Howard; Dr. Ales Hrdlicka; Dr. Albert Ernest Jenks; 
Dr. A. V. Kidder; Charles Kie; Oliver La Fa.rge; Robert Lansdale; Dr. Ralph T. 
Linton; Dr. Charles T. Loram; John Jpseph Mathews; William Gibbs McAdoo; Margar- 
et McKittrick; Dr. H. Scudder Mekeel; Dr. Jay B. Nash; Dr. William F. Ogburn; 
Father Bona Ventura Oblasser; Dr. Robert Redfield; Dr. W. Carson Ryan; Lester 
F. Scott; Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant; Ernest Thompson Set on; Guy Emery Shipler; 
Dr. Frank G. Speck; Vilhjalmur Steffansson; Fred M. Stein; Huston Thompson; 
George C. Vaillant; Dr. Wilson D. Wallis; James P. Warbasse; and Dr. B. D. Weeks. 


At the Blackfeet Indian Agency in Montana, a new program for the 
uniform marketing of Indian cattle is being developed. The former helter- 
skelter selling of cattle to whomsoever presented himself as a purchaser is 
being replaced by cooperative marketing of all classes of livestock. As a 
result many Indian stockraisers at Blackfeet are getting from 12 to 30 per 
cent more for their cattle- One hundred and ten Indians in four sales con- 
signed 309 head of cattle under this system and very favorable results were 
achieved. Indians uniformly expressed surprise and pleasure at the better 
prices obtained. These cooperative sales, the agency pointed out, have at- 
tracted all classes of buyers, and an effort has been made to attract com- 
petitive buyers from the East. 


This Is One Of The Posters Used To Advertise The Indian Service 
Exhibit At The Golden Gate International Exposition, Which 
Opens In San Francisco February 18 • 







Seven governments joined in submitting to the Eighth International 
Conference of American States, at Lima, in December, a resolution which had 
been jointly drafted by the delegations of the United States and of Mexico. 
The resolution, unanimously adopted, stated the continental importance of the 
problem of the Indian, and laid it down that: "It is desirable to establish 
a center of study, compilation and interchange of data and information on the 
condition of the Indian populations and on the procedures followed for their 
complete assimilation into the national life of the respective countries." 
The resolution then recommended that all of the governments participate in the 
Continental Congress of Indianists, to meet in La Paz, Bolivia, next August. 
Specifically, the need for establishing an inter -American Indianist institute 
was called to the attention of the La Paz Conference by the resolution. 

Canada As An Example 

"Indians At Work", from time to time, has reported Indian activities 
in other countries, of interest to our own Indian Service. These reports have 
touched upon Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico. As one example of what nations may 
learn from one another about Indians, the following summary of the positive 
achievements of Canada for Indians, prepared by Allan G. Harper, is of inter- 
est. Mr. Harper, upon a grant from the Carnegie Corporation, has made a com- 
parative study of Indian methods in Canada and the United States. He now heads 
Technical Cooperation-Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

"1. Canada's body of Indian law, organically and consistently 
embodied in her Indian Act , is outstanding, even unique. 

"2. Canada's treaty system is a dynamic feature of present-day 
Indian administration. Canada has built enduring confidence in her 
good faith and integrity by keeping inviolate the provisions and 
promises of the treaties. Especially has this been true in protect- 
ing Indian lands from alienation or expropriation, except where there 
has been bona fide consent of the Indians concerned. Through the 
treaty system, particularly in the western provinces, great surren- 
ders of Indian lands have been integrated with the opening and set- 
tlement of those provinces, without serious conflict or war. 

"3. The substantive body of law recognizes various states in 
the process of cultural evolution from primitive status to adapta- 
tion to modern conditions. It recognizes existing tribal institu- 
tions in the first stage; it introduces the principle of elective 
representation in the second; and it visualizes Indian groups as 
self-governing municipal corporations in the third. The third stage 
is a brilliant innovation in Native administrative law. 

"4. Canada pursues a policy of utmost conservatism in individ- 


ualizing Indian land holdings. She has no enthusiasm for the patent- 
in-fee, and grants it only rarely along with the gift of citizenship, 
and only where the grant will not disturb the unbroken continuity of 
a group's land. By placing emphasis upon use , prior to title , Canada 
has escaped the terrible malaise of Indian land tenure to be found in 
the United States. 

"5. Canada's concrete definition of an Indian and of the rights, 
privileges, and limitations of Indian wardship, clearly define her In- 
dian population and her administrative relationships to the Indian 

"6. Canada has successfully enforced Indian prohibition through 
an even imposition of penalties against both Indian and White through 
the instrumentality of the Canadian Royal Mounted Police. Canada's 
enforcement of law and order on Indian reserves is generally superior 
to that of the United States. 

"7. Canada's Indian Civil Service displays a high degree of 
administrative integrity in protecting Indian interests against White 
inroads, and this is true, despite the existence of a generally im- 
bued concept of White supremacy among the personnel." 


Constitutions ; 

December 12 
December 27 
January 10 . . . 

Charter ; 

December 12 

Citizen Band of Potawatomi Indians of Oklahoma ... 351 

Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of Oklahoma 95 

Alabama Quassarte Indians of Oklahoma 50 

Te-Moak Indians of Nevada 37 





The picture on the cover of this issue of "Indians At Work" is from 
the Navajo Agency, Window Rock, Arizona, and shows two Navajo women baking 
bread at the day school. Many adults in the community surrounding the day 
schools come into the community center to learn how to bake bread properly and 
to actually bake it. The woman Indian assistant is there to show them how to 
bake, both in outdoor ovens and in stoves. 


By Lucy Kramer Cohen 

It was in 1877 that Colonel G-arrick Mallery made public his discovery 
of Lone Dog's winter count or "waniyetu wowapi ." With this discovery scientists 
learned that for at least a hundred years the Sioux and other Plains Indians 
had possessed a technique for recording history - not only family and tribal 
events, but cosmic events as well. 

Lone Dog's winter count was painted in colors on buffalo hide in a 
spiral, with a picture for each year or "winter." It told the story of the Da- 
kota Nation from 1800 to 1871, a period of 71 years. 

Later many other "counts" or chronicles were discovered, some going 
back even to a mythical period of the first man- Each count was the responsi- 
bility of a "keeper" who had to remember and recount to his people what event 
each picture memorialized. 

Big Missouri's winter count is one of the longest we know. It records 
events among the Rosebud Sioux from 1796 to 1926, a period of 130 years. It 
came to the Indian Bureau in 1926 through the good offices of former Superin- 
tendent James H. McGregor when he left the Rosebud Reservation to become Su- 
perintendent at Chemawa. That year had a name for the Rosebud Indians - not 
1926, the white man's abstract number, but "the year a good agent left." 

Ten years later, in 1936, the author was fortunate enough to receive 
from J. A- Anderson of Rapid City, South Dakota, whose remarkable museum col- 
lection the Indian Office only recently acquired, a detailed interpretation of 
each pictograph in Big Missouri's count. That interpretation appears on the 
following page, the work of Kills Two, a Sioux Indian, and several other Indians. 

Superintendent McGregor's copy of the count was made on a piece of 

muslin 33" by 55" in size. Kills Two copied it carefully in size and color 

from the hide in Mr. Anderson's possession. It is a photograph of this muslin 
copy that appears in the frontispiece. 

Big Missouri 1 s winter count is remarkable because it is a history of 
the Rosebud Sioux,year by year from 1796 to 1926, as experienced by one family. 
But there are many other winter counts kept by Sioux families even today. These 
would throw much-needed light on many early events in White-Indian history, and 
from the Indian point of view. It is hoped that this calendar will call forth 
other winter counts and stimulate a new interest in, and a new interpretation 
of early American history from the standpoint of the earliest Americans. 

* Col- G. Mallery: "Picture Writing of the American Indians" in Annual Re - 
port , Bureau of American Ethnology . Vol. 10, 1888 - 1889, p. 266. " 




■Hater of Boree-ateallog-Caap" ba- 
OBnae t«o eneevy e«np» eere located 
near each other. A eery deep enoe 
fall and neither cm* eaa able to 
■ort- >u-la/> tala long period of 
•a o* bound ronaltlona, each caap 
•tola horaee froa tba otter. 


fall far narked tba death of tin 
great eblaf Bona Bracelet. 

Tbla ena « emtreaeljr cold 
md bmb7 etpacted eothera die 

dlana They wore long black gonna 
■ad vara eery 0©d-llfce. ao tba la- 
dlaaa did cot bars than- afteraaree 


Ttli /ear Ua flrat good white aa 

eletted tba ladlaaa- 8a 

asa a ■!■- 



fhla year a (Teat el 

lef founded 

■aad died. 


thta year tba Croa ] 

tdlasa aad 

tba Siooz ladlaaa happened to aaat 

while tbay vara basting 


Being enealea, a fight 

blinding bbo« atora iii* 

anly arose 

aad both parties bad to 

found that 

tbay vara eaaped cloae 

a aecond fight aniuad. 

w ™* 

^ Into tb. 


This jaai a PTenchann c 

■Utile Senear." Be aede bit hoan 
oa aa island la tba Missouri Blear 

TMa year an Oaaha Ionian entv 
Into tba Sioui caap la aaa an saaar 


thle year a delegation of ladlao 
aaa aad their aires t tart ad to Vaab- 
lartoa to eee tba Oreat Father Tbaj 
eabarked in rawhide boata an tba ■!•- 
sourl Blear Th+y did act kaoa where 
they left tbe rleer to atari for faeh 
Inrtoe- Thar were gone so long that 
tbe Indiana thought they vera lost 
tut finally a fa* of tbaa caae back 

Thio year a Croa Inclan sneaked 
to a Sioux c«ap aad *ae killed- 



Thle fear tba Indiana *ii- r •»* 
tbalr gratitude to the Qreat Spii 
la a eery profuse aanner They 
placed aaoy red fl*n upon hills 


Tale year tba Indian* b«d to 

feat tbalr boreea on tb. bark of 

trees, eblcb tbey cat down beceaae 

other food «*• ao acarca A aaa by 

killed by a falling tree durlag 
tbla period. 


Thii year tbe Preachaan, vbo »aa 
kaaaa a* Uttle Beaear. mentioned 
la tbe rear 1904. vbo aatabllahad 
bis hone on an lalead. loat bla 
boaa by fire. 

Thle year tbe Sioux atole froa 
tba Croa Indiana a buckskin horse 
fall/ decorated vltb sagle faatbara 
la all anna and tall. Tbe borae 
afterwards bec.-nse a faaoua raca 
boraa aa a aa, the Sioux. 

TBle aaa a hard vlnter: the anov 
aaa to anap tut the laetaas eaald 
not «o out and boat la tbalr usual 
aaaner- They had to lira aa 
ehlcb they decoyed eltb o-*to to 
bolea la tba ground ehora tba hunt 


Tbla yaar a friendly ehl 
peddled goods enong 

Indiana -The 
atfka the 

charging the accent. 

:l lied a Pawnee 



Tala year the ladlaaa aaa the 
flrat white aaa'a boaae •ataallah' 


Tala yaar the ladlaaa araaaad 
lace aa baraeeaa* te WU a Lag 

Thle T—r tba IaUant ware i 
aiaag the Minor: Blear ■ the 
aprtaa: of the yaar * graat flood 

eaaa does snddeely anc. Croasal aaar/ 
of tba iDilena 

., ' Thle aprlag. afalle tbe ducka aad 

v 't t**B» vara flying north, a billiard 

■uddenly aroae and ao aanj of the 

flight, that tbe ground i 
•oaa of the tent 
dead 1 

Thla year aarka tbe graat ecovga 

of aaallpox wmmg tba Siou. 


H*"--v. ^t I not. U-. Ua f»lil« Cro. E.7 


&• luim cad , =•;;..- tK,, , 
""*»■ «««T >-»r» «ll htff^. .«• 
|acrad aad tba kldaa or Uow *af- 
alaaa nri etaialdarad la ha oaa of 
1 paaaaa.loai aaoa* 

rood alll far all 

A 1 

* Source: J. A. Anderson, Rapid City. South Dakota 




Thin year four AlU buffalo were 
killed, thi largest mte La history 
A aw aaaed Swift Bur ofM4 th* only 

borss rut enough to c^ici on* «f 


Thle year an aaeaf tribe aada 
i the Sioux and thay 
together durlar, tba via* 

ran year Ut* Slow killed a greet 
anabar of Ooaha Indians ■ The plitvi 
shows tba typical high-topped an ran 
• lot torn by tba Oaahaa at that tlaa. 


ftu aprLio tin) hjiaW ■*■* •** 
bunting aM they fouad a rreat nanr 
daad buffalo calvea on tha prairie. 
Thay old aot knoe whether they frota 
to daath or vara klllad by dlaaaaa- 


Thla jear tba Slots 


a tribe, laaralac 
with tie Sioux wife It « ttougt' 
that thla Cheyenae aith a part/ of 
othar Cheyenne Indiana eneakvd Into 
tba Slcus caap and Bordered a boy - 
than tba OitmM lad tana rttnad 
to bla Sioux wife, ba aaa klllad la 


Tela year tba Hon Indiana vara 
defeated la a great battle. It w 
tha cuetoa to cbeoaa tba too araveet 
am la tba triba to laad tba aattla 
lach of theee tao laadara aleaye 
carried a pipe >r la* thla bat Ha. 
vfalla tba aala body of Slou* earTloro 
•are la retreat, tha tao laadara ear- 
rrlac u» plpao bald tha -near at 
hay aatll their eaaradaa had tlaa to 
aaeapa- Tba tao laadara bain* tba 
only oaaa klllad La tba battla at 
that tlaa- 


Tha arroa aaa kept In 

a aacrad caaa 

•ad before aach 


aaa found aayati 

It, tba battl 

aaa abandoned ; 

but If 

that tha batt: 

f aaneee captured thla 

arroa froa 

than. Later th 

a Slou 

t captured tba 

Chr/annes final 

Sioux hald tba 

arroa and on 

tbla particular 

tba Cheyeaae 

brourjit great t 


f boraaa to a 

that tba horaaa could n 
aroka out bataoaa tba S 

**a Indiana; tha Pawnees wmi 
alda of tha river and tha fl 

aa allek 
©ee. far 

and Foe 

Thara aaa a particular Sla 
loom aa tba Brokoa Boa caap- 




a aaa froa tba 1 




tha alfa of an 


af t 

m othar caatpo 


arejuaico acalaat tea 

Br 0* an 



and all tha raat 



lad amd aaaaacrad 




Thla year tha Pawnee Indiana aada 
a great buffalo kilUar- a nunber of 
tha aaakar Pawnee Indiana, aho had 
bow unable to take part In tha bunt. 
were out pick lax up tha scrape and 
rafuaa laft by thalr stronger breth- 
ran. Tha Slout rplad thla party of 
Pnene+s and captured all of then. 

IB 46 
Thla aaa a band of northara Sioux 
aho had always half aloof froa tba 
othar Sioux ban da - Thla band aaa 
known aa "Without a Boo* band, but 
thla yaar thay caaa and cooped and 
lived aith tha raat of tha aleux. 

Thla yaar an Indian neaed Tallo* 
Spldar aaa tha cuatodlaa of tha aa- 
crad afcite buffalo robe- 

Droaily tte Indians caapad alone 
pratactod placoa on atraaaa for tta 
alitor- Thla yaar tha Indiana 

1 oa a Mil. Thla la tba only 
yaar tha Iidlaia eere kaoam to cm? 
oa a bill during a alntar. 

could chamc* 

tba Indiana aaaded. auch ei 
powder, laad. mm. or anj 
thay happened to ne*d. Ba 
calfskin rally painted aa 

Thla yaar tha white aaa 1 
loo Ires Had- Ba aaa aant 
183 by tha daatb of bla to 


yaar t 

ha alatar 

aa* ao cold 

that aoay of tha Indiana In Bona 

caap had froia 

n faot . 




bad at thla tlaa • 

Of aak 

nx offarlira to thalr 

. Thl 

yaar th 

aaa tar af 


laa aada a grave arror . Tba 

Taluabla rad 


>r flags. Thara 

had aloapa 

boon a 

w for aach diractioa. 



Want; oia for 

»a for t 

a aaxth; aid 

01a fo 

and aar th- 

Tha Baiter of 

is only aada 

lookad don upon aa bain/: of tha 

loaaat order aid as outcaat Thla 
yaar aaa known aa the "Tear of oaa 

Thla yaar aaa narked by a eecond 
aeourro of aaallpoi aaonx the Sioux 

Thla yaar apaoahere alaax the 
Platta Elver tha OoTernaant laaoad 
to the Sloui, arapahoea, Cheyenne, 

Thla year the winter aaa ao dale 
th ao auoh eno* that horae food 
is ie acarca that nearly all af tl 

a»T7 Th- 


Thla aaa kaova aa tba year of 
floaty of aoaer . Tha draolaffa are 
allaor dollara- 1 ataao ooaek carry- 
lad- a party of aoldlari with a treat 
daal of aoaey, enrouu to a waatara 
fart to pay tba loldlers off. aaa 
captured ay the Indiana aid all tao 
aoa ay ta iraa- tpottad Tall aaaVaa* 
iaaaahjajMaa) aaa the laadar and oaa la- 
tar arreaUd aad placed in prlaoa- 
Thla aaa tha beftlnnlnf of xreat ohlaf 
•patted Tall, aho afterward becaaw 
aaa of tha aoat eoaaplcuoua charae- 
tara la Sioux hletory- 

Thla year aaa known aa war bonnet 
A (raat luabar of fine oar 
1 were aada and placed on tba 
■airier a. Tbaaa 
aith tha duty 
r w taklnx lead in all future aara 
f£ and difficulties. 

Thla year were aaaped Ln tha 
aiolnlty where the Eoaebud Indian 
dxeccj ion atanda- It aaa tha year 

plenty> Many buffalooa 


baanata aora aada and 
heads of tha braveet 1 

Y «f taklnx lead in all 


aeet beln^ j 
other kettle 

thara haw in* bean only ana kettle 
ln the peat. So auch buffalo aoat 
aaa had that it could aot ba uaed. 
Oraat etoroe of It aaa dried and 
burled ln the bills nearby, to b* 

-V *>*_ d*\ Thla yaar a 1 
riT- a^ J »aa klllad by » 

This year aaa known aa tha year 
that tha potato dlcxora wore killed.. 

1 1A The Pawnee Indiana eeae as froa tha 

known as Indian potato. Tha Sioux 
dlaooTorod tho Pawnee while la 
eearah of thla food- Thay attacked 
aad allied aoat of thaa 

Pot aoaa unexplained reason, the Oot- 
ernaent issued to the chlefa of 4 
«*■*> a shlnlag award. 



This year the Sioux eaffarad ! 
battla with the Pawnee Indiana - 
Sioux aara rroatlj defeated aad 

of thalr bravest oarrli 

> wore killed- 



Thla year all trlbea of tba Sioux 
■atloi wore eaapod together . la tha 
early fall whan tba fT«at caap oaa 

broken, the Sioux scattered ln all 

directions apparently for the reason 
of aatttne food and othar supplies 

This y*ar narked the advent of tl 
On aril dance aanar, tha Sioux Indiana 
Thla draelnx la a typical bonnet »oi 

Thla oaa oaa of tha coldest winters 
known to tho Sioux people. Tha Oor- 
arnaaat issued oattle for food. Tha 
eattla aara driven up aa cloee to the 
teste aa possible, where they aara 


TM« year * via* old chief au»d 
>ly Bull »a* eeat to fa* h in* too to 
>uncll «lth the Qreat White T«th*r . 

, efltf 


■ ftr 


Thla yaar la known an the bin* 
t»sp** year beoauae the InTTn— nt 
lesued a .treat deal of blua d*ala 
to b* used la aaklox te*p**e Instead 
of the white cnnvee foraarly used 
and tb* characteristic rawhide tee- 
pe.o of tha Indiana- 


This year aerke tha flrti Us* 

that an Indian child evar waa known 
to eater a white aen'a oebool . Toll 
T*ar a election •chool for Indiana 
aaa established near vbara Chaaber- 
lnic. South Dakota, now stands 


Thla raar CM of Black Bird visit*, 
tha 0*1*1* Oloox Indiana and con- 
ducted a t*tj eecred cereaony known 
to tha Slou aa tha Con Dance- 

Ala 7*ar Standlac Cloud aaa sad* 
tb* keeper of tba aacrad white buf- 
falo robe and Kaeter of Careaenleo 

Tola yaar tha Slovx oat the Psam- 

»*• swain In battle soaewhere oa the 
Platte Hirer, and one hundred Pawn- 
aaa. Including *0Mn and cblldran, 
vara killed. 

Thla year the faaoue abler. Sacs* 
Hakar, ehtpped in Oaaba Indian and 
let hie go althout further her*.. Tb* 


Thla rear tha Sloox and Oanh* In- 
diana aad* frlanda and declared that 
they would b* ao forever- * pin* of 
peao* la shown between the haade- 

/^b. Tbla yaar the flret 

in TO «•«• •«•«« for tb. lo 

be preaent koeebod 

abllebed- The picture 

| Thla year a great nuaber of the 

1* gathered at Black Pip*, at tba 
1 present alte of lorrla, and conducted 


Thla wee tha terrible elatar of 
91 or tb* greatest bllwarde known 


Thla /ear when an Indian naa*d 
Dog Shield died, bla wife waa ao 

Thla rear an Indian by tba aaa* o: 
Egy On The Bead, who waa a bully and 
a tyrant aaong all aaa. waa killed b> 
a whit* wood chopper naar tba acuta 
of rain tone creek. In Oratory Countj 

Thunder waa klll*a by the eon of 
Spotted Tall or*r paraonal dlapu 

Little Prairie Chic: 
land allotaaat. 

Thla year the Oow*rnB*at 4*elleed 
Issue the annual detain* supply 
the Indiana until tbay bad e*Tc-*d 

enraged Indi 

ua went to tb* agency 

r flc*; thoy than want to 
aad demanded the key 

CMafe eater 

d ta* Ooaaraaant fare- 

euppllca dur 
p*ar la kmotr 

u*d tha aBBOal clothing 
a* the eight boure. Thl 
*e -Blah* leeua. - 

Thla y*ar 


two ladles apnea had 

pbyelclan wa 

dteeeta* which bloated 
e greatly. Th* a*waey 

auaaoaed and he tapped 
of the two wosan. They 


Thla yaar f Ullaa J .* Clareland. 
an episcopal elestoury knosa to the 
Indians aa Loo*- Plae, caa* afjawj th* 
Indian* and councllled with theo oa 
the subject of accepting th*lr land 


This year Owner al Crook, teoea to 
he Indians aa Tore* Stare, aaa* a 
reaty and agraeaant with th* Indians 
o receive their land allotneata- 



tb* *n.d of tba 

gr**t la 

Dane*. Big foot 

of th* 9 

landing Bock B 

OB* Of t 


be (shoot Dano* 

Be *ore 

aT?! h h"*I 


a ehlrt that 

waa eald 

to be lap 


ue to th* 

then the eol- 

dlara tr 

Bla P*ot and 

hi a band 

laf of the 


tine Bull, em* 

killed w 

a battle. 

Iff Pool traveled 

Ite of tb* 


raa founded 

lae* oa< 


h*r* a* *aa 

o battle- 


Oho si Dancare 

that Prowl 

anc* would sooo 

clear th 

s eartu of 


whit* aaa and 

Thla year two b*ad of oattle wen 
euad to eaoh aeaber of the tribe, 
.eluding eoaten and children. 


^4 1 

r..hlciirtaD to th. a... bod llcaj mat 

oaMr sf lo—T Irul. la- 
i th. ko..bud Trtto. Tb^ 

"H » p*. Is t 


TM. /««■ « aet«d UUm» poli*^ 
«" »»«< •«■«, *»1. Oft ftffl.i- 
ftl dal 7 . hfti hi. horft. rui o. hi. 
had brokft hi. l»f , rtich had to ft. 
ftftputfttftd lfttftr. 

T ~V ftlt yftftr th. flnifti i—iit h 

. VfJ-n •••■'•Mrr for th. ftjort.d i, 

b Brul. llous ftt tb. pr.,. = t ,i 

— ' ' Hftftlll. Sotith Oftlrotft. 


ftl. Tftar Baft Dec elftd of .amll 
poz. B. aa. th* oaij aaabftr of tha 

tha ladlaaa ilit- 

""• r—r Balklac Ba.u «li« 
•a old Iadlaa asaao u oraar ta „\ 
har dau«htar aad rval aaar .1th bar 
a^rj. »»., MU«, . UDl . UM| 
ftftftftft Joha thaa; aad oa tha aaftft 
day ha 1111*1 a dar-.ebool taaoaar 
at inn Caaci a«r .ahool Oaarta 
»« aad talkla* Shl.ld aar. l.tar 
baad*d torathar la Blast Pall.. Tha 
olrale with faat uadaraaath rapr.- 
•aftt. a »lti M .hi.u. 

Thl. a baod of Flo. Blddft 

!«."?■ 'at'f" ""L" * " r ""' ,rV P 
out la Broalod. Thaj rot lata troo- 
»1. -1th th. .tat. ol-floar.. 1.^.. 
•ljf th. !.<!,„. ^r, » U 1M „j 

pletta-. rapraaaat. tha at.t. ih.rlff 
~>d th. daar-huatlod trip. 


rhii 7*ax th* *lf* of L»mA*s 
Chtfjt* *"• b'-rth to quadruplet* 
They *«r* healthy nor**! habiea 
they aaa* Into th* world bat too 
11 *d for lack of car* 



i y*ar . noUd India polio. 
«d aittlax Ia*l* ■hot ud 

twlft Bear, th* chi*f aratloead 
••vara! tlo** a* own la** th* a*ifte*t 

19 1Q 

•ilrar dollar* to th* Indlac* 4w - 

f«x apart that by U>* tlaa & atatloa 
■•a raacbad ih* lay ■*■<■ cob* aad Um 

ih* lloux, <u«d 

/ 1 

7™^7™T two Itkitae boye daaartad It. Pn 

\ 1" JI cla Mlaaloa School oa a Tory cold < 

/*^yr\ •»* »• 8' thaa froae la daath; th- 

band l**dar. 

toora* Pon«7 and hi 
i Mr* klUM by thalr •on-lo-le= 


h - 7*ar an Indian aaaaa 
leo ' Th* plotara rapra- 
and as aada faathar . 

Jaai Ptaharaan. a Chapaima airar ff% **" ■ '»" r "aaa*. Ilk. a proata 

Slottl. baoauaa th* aothar and fathar / — .. S/^^ aadlclna aaa. *a* arr»*t*d hy th 

taruaad to (It. thalr d.ujhtar back ( V^ZifWs. **"'* ? f,I " UI " *«• «■»<■"!» 

to th* orual huabaad. flth.raan aaa \_</ "\ ,-^? on. of hi* .p.01,1 earaaoala. . 

triad aod alias a llf. inmei la W^ P lc,u ™ rapr..*nt, . *„ d ,„ , h . 

th* *tata prl.oo. ' I *°''• " *■**• *" ""oh aa* aa| 

Tbl* r**r a buffalo f.aat *aa rl.- 
•o at th* Roiabud ax*ncr lo honor or 
Balpfc B. Caa*. th* Black Hllla at- 
torney for tha Indian*. Th* buffalo 

• d tha St. rranol* win 
a aary sola da/ Ob* o 

b«d har f*at fro.a. ., th., had 

** aaputatM. 

and ahosad 
«t.l7 r.- 
Jaaa* F. »oOr»for . 


The Seminole Indian Agency is being returned to its original location 
at Fort Ifyers, on the west coast of Florida. 

The number of Indian families at Dania, headquarters of the Agency 
from 1926 until the present move, has dwindled to six. Recent land acquisitions 
in the Big Cypress country and on the northwest shore of Lake Okeechobee also 
make a more central location for the. agency necessary. 

Over the past two years about 35,000 acres of the finest grazing 
lands in Florida, at a cost of some $200,000, have been acquired for the Semin- 
oles. From purchases by the Resettlement Administration and exchanges of tracts 
set aside by the State for Indians, both the northern and southern groups of 
Seminoles are enjoying more consolidated land holdings. These land adjustments 
have taken place primarily in Glades and Hendry Counties- A further reason for 
the change in Agency locale is the fact that the present two-story frame struc- 
ture at Dania is considered insufficiently storm-resistant. 



Missionary leaders and Indian Service leaders achieved a close degree 
of cooperation and under standing in a meeting held at the Washington Office of 
the Indian Service on January 5 and 6. Citing the 2,700,000-acre increase in 
Indian lands, improvements in Indian health, and the approximate increase of 
10,000 in the Indian population since 1930, leaders of Protestant missionary 
work, meeting in joint session, signified their approval of the government's 
educational, health, and "broad conservation of physical assets in the Indian 

Thirty-three leaders of Protestant missionary groups from ten states, 
representing sixteen mission hoards or organizations devoted to Indian welfare, 
attended the seminar on current social, educational, and religious work among 
Indians. Emphasis was placed strongly on well-thought-out cooperative action 
between missionary activity and the work of the Indian Service. 

At the three sessions conducted on January 5 and 6 the presiding of- 
ficers were Miss Katharine E. Gladfelter of the Presbyterian Board of National 
Missions; Dr. Thomas A. Tripp, Secretary of the Congregational-Christian Board 
of Home Missions; and Dr- G. A. Watermulder of the Reformed Church in America. 
The seminar was welcomed by Commissioner Collier, who summarized the work 
done by the Indian Service over the past five years. Among those advances par- 
ticularly noted were the restoration of over two and one-half million acres to 
the Indian estate, the increase in the number of hospitals and day schools on 
Indian reservations, and the birth of self-government for the Indian under the 
Indian Reorganization Act, whereby eighty-five tribes are now participating in 
running their own affairs and fifty-nine of these have incorporated to enjoy 
the credit provisions available under the Act. In many cases such action was 
believed to have helped spell the difference between tribal extinction and 

The purpose of the conference, as expressed by Mark A. Dawber, repre- 
sentative of the Home Mission Councils was to help the church groups jointly 
to study at first hand the results achieved under the new Indian Service poli- 
cies. Mr. Dawber stated that without political involvement of any kind, "the 
representatives ought to work with and cooperate on those questions in which we 
are in agreement instead of fighting over those things on which we disagree ... 
Define those constructive measures which are mutual and try to work out things 
which we have in mind as well as the Bureau." 

One subject of interest to the conference was the -recapitulation of 
the increase in the past five years in Indian self-government among the 252,000 
Indians now living under the Indian Reorganization Act, and of the extent of re- 
habilitation of Indians* better housed and better equipped to make their way on 
a steadily increasing estate. These programs were presented by Walter V. Woehlke , 
John Herrick, and F. H. Daiker, all of the Indian Office. 


Extension work, to improve Indian range, forests, and herds, was de- 
scribed by A. C. Cooley. Social and educational work: to train Indians, both 
adults and children, to meet their own problems was expounded by P. L. Fickinger . 
The advancement and safeguarding of native Indian arts and crafts was dealt with 
by Willard W. Beatty and the increasing emphasis on Indian community life was 
discussed by William Zimmerman, Jr., Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 
Considerable attention was devoted to reports of the new controls against 
trachoma, Indian eye scourge, and tuberculosis. Progress in this field was 
set forth by Dr. J. G. Townsend, chief of the Indian Service Health Division. 

The missionary leaders expressed warm interest in the present Indian 
program, and interest as well in one another's work and problems. 

In conclusion four general recommendations were emphasized by the 
visiting groups. First: to carry to the field those things which had been 
learned arid then to apply the knowledge to local needs; Second: that certain 
Indians be released from their wardship status; Third: that the mission board 
recognize the necessity of collaborating with the Indian Office and of pooling 
parish resources to promote mutual progress; and, Fourth: that missions ex- 
plore on a factual basis those spheres of activity wherein missions could best 
apply their effort to serve Indian needs. 


An interesting letter, recently received from the Governor of San 
Juan Pueblo, is quoted below: 

"As my term as Governor of the San Juan Pueblo nears its 
completion, I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Gen- 
eral Superintendent of the United Pueblos Agency and her staff for 
the fine cooperation we have experienced. Although we have experi- 
enced a number of difficulties in our work program, we always found 
that every effort was made by the Albuquerque Office to straighten 
these things out to our satisfaction. 

"One of the very necessary work projects was the Hiver 
Protection at several points where the river seriously endangered 
our lands. Another was the correcting of the Drainage Canal water 
level, interior and exterior fencing and seeding. All of these 
projects are and will be very beneficial to all of us and we have 
high hopes for a continuation of this type of assistance. 

"Again thanking you and assuring you of my appreciation, 
I am, 

Sincerely yours, 
(Signed) Eulogio Cata, 
Governor, Pueblo of San Juan." 



On November 1, 1937, work was commenced on the largest land status 
mapping project ever attempted by the Indian Service. The project is commonly 
known as the Land Status Map of the Five Civilized Tribes Area, which comprises 
the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations in the State of 

The total area consists of some 925 townships, involving 44 counties. 
This area represents 21,313,000 acres, or 33,000 square miles, approximately 
one-fifth larger than the entire Navajo Reservation. 

Because of the extremely large area involved, it was necessary to con- 
struct the map in four component parts. These status maps will show, when com- 
pleted, the designation of all restricted non-taxable Indian lands, restricted 
taxable Indian lands, and all county, State and Federally-owned lands; likewise 
towns, cities, State and Federal highways, topographical drainage, Indian schools, 
hospitals, and district field offices. 

The planning of the project required numerous conferences with Super- 
intendent Landman and members of his staff, and the mechanics of constructing 
the maps required careful planning and detailed work on the part of all concerned 
with the project. Six Indian assistants were employed for ten months in examin- 
ing the county records for material on the status of not only the Indian allot- 
ments, but of virtually all lands in the project area- Status plats were made 
for each township, giving the complete Indian land ownership material; these 
plats were assembled (by counties), and bound into book form. The information 
from these plats is being transferred to the master maps, which are drawn on a 
scale of one-half inch to the mile. The status of various tracts of land is shown 
by colors and symbols . The symbols are so designed that as the status of the 
land changes, the map changes may be made without making erasures or changing 

It is planned at the present time to complete twenty maps of each na- 
tion, totaling eighty maps. These are to be used by the Washington Office, by 
the Five Civilized Tribes Agency, by the Land Division and the Indian Service 
employees at large. 

The work of gathering the information and construction of the map was 
all done by Indian employees, except for the employment of one draftsman for a 
period of nine months- This work is all being done under the supervision of Mr. 
J. M. Stewart, Director of Lands, Washington, D. C. , and the local Land Division 
field staff. 

*h .& Rfetfj 

By Preston Keesame, Hopi 


As promised in the November 1938 issue, "Indians At Work" has compiled 
a list of second-generation Indian Service employees. While this list is neces- 
sarily incomplete, there follows a recording of some "who at least knew what 
they were getting into." 

Mr. C H. Asbury, who died March 17, two years ago, and 
who had been superintendent at Western Shoshone Agency, at Carson, 
at Crow, and at Turtle Mountain, is succeeded in the Service by 
two children. His wife also served as a teacher in the Service 
for some time. The second-generation Asburys : Fuhrman A. Asbury, 
who entered the Service in 1929, and who has been extension agent 
at Pine Ridge, and for the past year has been working as Credit 
Agent at Large, with headquarters at Salt Lake City; Ruth Asbury, 
now Mrs. Wilson Russell, served for several years as teacher at 
the Carson Agency, where she was born- She has, however, recently 
left the Service. 

Another is Charles A. Leech, Supervising Construction 
Engineer, in the Indian Service's Construction Division at Musko- 
gee, Oklahoma, whose father, A. W. Leech, before 1930, was super- 
intendent at Yankton Agency, Northern Pueblo Agency and Shawnee 
Agency. Another of Mr. Leech's children might be said to belong 
vicariously to the Indian Service by virtue of marriage: Mrs. 
Walter B. McCown, whose husband is superintendent of the Kiowa 
Agency in Oklahoma. 

Dr. Ralph M. Alley, at present Senior Physician Id Charge 
of the Fort Lap wai Sana.torium, is the son of Dr. John W. Alley, who 
served at Tohatchi, New Mexico, on the Navajo Reservation, and on 
the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho, where he was the first super- 
intendent of the Fort Lapwai Sanatorium, and who subsequently be- 
came superintendent of the Tacoma Hospital. Dr. Alley, although 
retired from the Service, is still a member of the staff of the 
Eastern State Hospital at Medical Lake in Washington. 

Rosalie V. Lindsey, junior high school teacher at Fort 
Sill Boarding School in Oklahoma, is the daughter of Louise L. 
Lindsey, now retired, who served Indians as teacher and clerk. 

Tonita NaTanjo Dailey, primary teacher at Shiprock Com- 
munity School in New Mexico, is the daughter of Desiderio Naranjo, 
truck driver at United Pueblos Agency. Vivian Roberts, teacher at 
Shiprock, New Mexico, is the daughter of Rose H. Roberts, now de- 
ceased, who saw service in the Service between 1909 and 1928 as 
baker at tha Fort Sill Boarding School. 


Mary Nicholson, employed under rehabilitation work at 
the Five Civilized Tribes Agency in Muskogee, Oklahoma, is the 
daughter of D. L. Nicholson, long employed at the same agency. 
Both are of Cherokee blood. 

Mont Cotter, general mechanic at Chin Lee*, Arizona, is 
the son of James N. Cotter, Wyandotte Indian, who had a picturesque 
career as Indian policeman in the Territorial days of Oklahoma. 
His entering salary, his son writes, was five dollars a month and 
rations of flour, sugar, coffee, and bacon, to the value of about 
a dollar and a half per month. 

While not a member of the Indian Service herself, Mrs. 
Eva Hawes, who has been working as a staff member of WPA at the 
Wind River Agency in Wyoming, has a place in this list as a daugh- 
ter of Finceliua Gray Burnett, who was a farmer at the Wind River 
Agency for many years. Mrs. Hanes recalls spending many a night at 
the block-house, which still stands on the Agency grounds, during 
the troubled times of her childhood. 

Harry Ritchie, Farm Aid at Potawatomi Sub-Agency At 
Crandon, Wisconsin, writes in that his father was an interpreter 
at Haona Agency (Wisconsin Potawatomi), for twenty years. 

Mr. D. Alford furnishes us with the first example of 
three generations of Indian Service workers. The sons of Thomas 
W. Alford, (now deceased), of the Shawnee Indian Agency, Shawnee, 
Oklahoma, are Pierrepont Alford, Visual Educationist, Southern 
Arizona; Thomas W. Alford, Jr., CCC-ID, Shawnee, Oklahoma; and 
Charles R. Alford of Omaha Sub-Agency at Macy, Nebraska- The 
third generation is represented by Pierre Leon Alford, Clerk, In- 
dian Rehabilitation and Relief , also at Omaha Sub-Agency. He is 
the son of Charles R. Alford. 

"Indians At Work" welcomes any additional information which will make 
this list more comprehensive. 


One of the most fascinating relics of the prehistoric inhabitants of 
Navajo National Monument, Arizona, is a row of nine paintings, displayed at 
Betatakin Canon. The work of the unknown artist of long ago is painstakingly 
executed in hematite paint. Eight of the drawings represent human figures, or 
war gods- The ninth is a five-foot snake. Despite the unnumbered centuries 
that have passed since they first adorned the canon walls, the paintings still 
are in an excellent state of preservation. Reprinted from Facts and Artifacts 




> *= 






. Jc 

■1^>, -.. aT 

* . *• 


Moving Trailer Houses 

The CCC-TD on 
wheels moves further 
afield each year . Enthu- 
siastic reports from Flat- 
head, Montana, show how 
well suited these clank- 
ing heavy-duty gas buggies 
are for carrying out work 
on more remote parts of 
the reservation. The 
self-subsisting truck 
train is a typical Indian 
field service development 
and has been used with 
great effectiveness by 
the CCC in country where 
communication lines are 

scarce or non-existent, and where la.bor for short-time jobs must be gathered 
from over a wide area. 

Since 1934, when the first mobile CCC-ID was organized at Flathead, 
Montana, trailer "caravans" of various types have met with increasing favor at 
many agencies. At Flathead, Carson, Colville, Blackfeet, and the Five Civil- 
ized Tribes units on wheels have rolled over the country, performing the ever- 
changing duties of conservation and maintenance work. 

Mobile units are particularly useful for striking into virgin coun- 
try and where spike camps can be struck quickly. The component trucks, trail- 
ers, and tractors of the units are built to "take it" where going is hard. 
Once installed at their temporary locations, these traveling camps, which are 
fitted out with their own refrigeration, water, and kitchen systems can speedi- 
ly be put into use as 
bases for CCC operations* 

Their jobs 
range from road mainte- 
nance, truck trail blaz- 
ing, and rodent control 
work to cattle guard con- 
struction and the erec- 
tion of forest lookout 
pos"ts. They have the 
double advantage of be- 
ing able to assemble a 
crew quickly and bring 
heavy machinery quickly 
to a job. 

Bulldozer Moving Trailer Houses 



"Many well-informed and well-meaning men are apt to protest against 
the effort to keep and develop what is best in the Indian's own historic life 
as incompatible with making him an American citizen, and speak of those of op- 
posite views as wishing to preserve the Indians only as national bric-a-brac. 
This is not so. We believe in fitting him for citizenship as rapidly as possi- 
ble. But where he cannot be pushed ahead rapidly we believe in making progress 
slowly, and in all cases where it is possible, we hope to keep for him and for 
us what was best in his old culture ... The Indians themselves must be used in 
such education; many of their old men can speak as sincerely, as fervently, and 
as eloquently of duty as any white teacher, and these old men are the very teach- 
ers best fitted to perpetuate the Indian poetry and music. The effort should be 
to develop the existing art - whether in silver -making, pottery-making, blanket 
and basket weaving, or lace -knit ting - and not to replace it by servile and me- 
chanical copying. This is only to apply to the Indian principle which ought to 
be recognized among all our people- A great art must be living, must spring 
from the soul of the people; if it represents merely a copying, an imitation, 
and if it is confined to a small caste, it cannot be great- 

"Of course all Indians should not be forced into the same mould. Some 
can be made farmers; others mechanics; yet others have the soul of the artist. 
Let us try to give each his chance to develop what is best in him. Moreover, 
let us be wary of interfering overmuch with either his work or his play ... 

"A few Indians may be able to turn themselves into ordinary citizens 
in a dozen years- (Jive these exceptional Indians every chance; but remember 
that the majority must change gradually, and that it will take generations to 
make the change complete- Help them to make it in such a fashion that when the 
change is accomplished, we shall find that the original and valuable elements 
in the Indian culture have been retained, so that the new citizens come with 
full hands into the great field of American life, and contribute to that life 
something of marked value to all of us, something which it would be a misfor- 
tune to all of us to have destroyed." 

Who was it who said this, and when? It was Theodore Roosevelt, writ- 
ing in 1916, after the days of his presidency. The quotation is taken from 
"A Book-Lover's Holidays in the Open", and occurs in the chapter in which he 
describes with deep appreciation and sympathetic interest, the Hopi Snake Dance 
and a pack trip through the colorful, and at that time, relatively inaccessible, 
Hopi country. 



If one had been in the Arizona desert in the fall of 1857, he would 
have seen a strange sight: a caravan of camels loaded with freight and driven 
by white army officers; wending its way slowly westward. 

The story of these first and last array camels is a vivid one. The 
possibility of the use of camels in linking the vast untraveled areas of the 
Southwest was brought to public attention early in the 1850' s. Jefferson 
Davis, when he was U. S, Senator from Mississippi, had cherished the idea. Two 
army officers, Major George S. Crosman and Major Henry C. Wayne, had broached 
the project to their superiors. In 1853, Jefferson Davis became Secretary of 
War, and one of his earliest reports suggested the importation of camels as an 
aid to the solution of the frontier military situation, with its problem of 
freighting supplies over long distances in an arid country. Lieutenant Edward 
Fitzgerald Beale, former Superintendent of Indian Affairs in California and 
Nevada, had also been deeply interested in the enterprise, and when Congress 
finally passed the necessary legislation in 1855, it was Beale' s cousin - David 
Dixon Porter - who was appointed jointly with Major Wayne to share command of 
the camel expedition. 

Major Wayne and David Porter crossed the Atlantic , and after careful 
inquiry in England and France among military authorities on the care of camels 
and the types best suited to the climate of the American Southwest and visits 
to Malta, Smyrna, Salonika and Constantinople, purchased in Egypt early in 1856 
nine dromedaries. These and three others which had been secured at Tunis were 
loaded on board ship at Smyrna in January 1856. 

Thirty-three camels* sailed on the strange journey. One died on the 
way and two were born. It is told that one extra large animal, who was berthed 
between decks, had so large a hump that a hole had to be cut in the top deck to 
permit him to stand. A group of five Turks and Arabs had been engaged to care 
for the camel cargo. The camels appeared to take their rough journey philosoph- 
ically and were landed after three months at sea, near Indianaola, Texas, some 
twenty miles outside of Galveston, where, according to the accounts, they went 
into an hysteria of joy at finding solid earth under their feet once more. (Mr. 
Porter went back to Asia Minor in February 1857 and brought back forty-four 
more camels. ) 

Major Wayne took the camel caravan inland to San Antonio where a 
permanent camp was selected at Green Valley, about sixty miles northwest of 
the city. There, Major Wayne had the camels cared for meticulously, and con- 
ducted careful experiments to determine their fitness for American climatic 
conditions. It is recorded that one camel demonstrated his carrying ability 
by rising with, and carrying off a load of 1,256 pounds. 

*Both dromedaries and camels were included in the cargo. 


In 1857, with the change of government administration, Major Wayne, 
who had always been deeply interested in the camels' welfare, was transferred, 
and it is evident that the animals at Green Valley received less expert care 
from this time on. 

In 1857, Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, ordered a survey made of 
the wagon route west from Fort Defiance - now in the Navajo Reservation - to 
the Colorado River, near the 35th parallel and thence through wilderness coun- 
try to California. Lieutenant Edward Beale was put in charge- Then began the 
historic caravan westward. The story of this expedition is vividly told in a 
journal kept by May Humphreys Stacey, an adventurous youth of nineteen who ac- 
companied the group. The journal is full of color with its references to In- 
dians - friendly and unfriendly - to hazardous river crossings and to searches 
for water holes. Stacey' s journal ends in October 1857, with the crossing of 
the Colorado River. The party went on through California and arrived at Tejon 
Ranch, near what is now Baker sfield, California. There, Lieutenant Beale 
worked with one group of camels in high mountain altitudes to test their ability 
to withstand cold and rough country. According to records the camels in general 
kept fit, and did their work without flagging. During the next two or three 
years, Beale became so convinced of the usefulness of camels in the frontier 
Southwest, that he recommended the purchase of a thousand. Apparently no at- 
tention was paid to this request in official circles, and with the coming of 
the Civil War camels were all but forgotten. 

In the meantime, the camel corps had become divided: Some had gone 
back to Fort Yuma, while some were retained at Fort Tejon. It is known that 
twenty-eight were turned over to the quartermaster at Fort Tejon in 1861, from 
where they were moved to Los Angeles where they were used regularly in trans- 
porting freight from the harbor at San Pedro to Los Angeles. 

In November 1863, both California herds were ordered to Benicia, Cal- 
ifornia, to be disposed of at auction. In February 1864 they were sold to 
Samuel McLeneghan, who apparently sold three to a circus and turned the others 
into Nevada. 

In the meantime, private importation of camels had been conducted on 
a small scale, and camels were used in Nevada for transportation in the mining 
country around Austin and Virginia City up until about 1876. 

The animals which had been left in Texas suffered the vicissitudes 
of war, and when the Confederates took over the camel station, many of them 
were lost and wandered through Texas, New Mexico and Arizona for many years. 
After the Civil War, sixty-six camels remaining were sold at auction, subsequent- 
ly to find their way into circuses. 

Thus tht official camel experiment of the Government ended. The 
Civil War probably was the principal factor; Major Wayne and Major Beale were 
called to other duties and their successors apparently had not the same zealous 
interest in the experiment. Soon after the War came the railroads and the need 
for camels was at an end. No one knows how many of these camels escaped into 
the desert. They were commonly seen by ranchers and travelers up to the end of 
the nineteenth century. Members of the boundary commission which ran the United 
States-Mexico line in the early 90' s reported frequently seeing camels in the 


The white settlers and the Indians never liked them. When the animals 
were quartered in army posts, the residents complained bitterly of the camels' 
smell and white ranchers complained that they frightened other livestock. The 
escaped camels had no security and were often shot at on the excuse that they 
terrified mules and horses. 

Occasionally a white prospector today emerges from the desert with 
the assertion that the "camels are not all gone; in fact that he has just seen 
one. It is remotely possible: there is a verified statement that one was 
seen in Nevada in 1907, and the desert country is large and roomy and has many 
remote corners. Common sense, however, tells us that loneliness, the deceptive- 
ness of the desert atmosphere, and the illusions produced by strong drink prob- 
ably account for conjuring up the ghosts of these departed patient desert beasts. 

This material was taken principally from "Uncle Sam's Camels: Journal of May 
Humphreys Stacey," Edited by Lewis ; Bu.rt Lesley, and published by the Harvard 
University Press in 1929. 

Ifcr R. L. Whitcomb, District Highway Engineer 


Roads serving In- 
dian Service day schools and 
public schools attended by In- 
dian children, Indian Service 
hospitals and Indian farm 
areas are being given priority 
under the Service's road pro- 

Some entirely new 
roads were built in hitherto 
isolated areas. Roads to 
hospitals have also been im- 
proved: as an example, at 
the hospital at Talihina, Okla- 
homa, a large number of Indians 
in the vicinity of Bethel would 
have had to travel some sixty 
miles by road, or thirty miles by foot or horseback over mountain trails to the 
hospital. They are now able to travel over a farm-to-market highway, built by 
the Indian Service, from Bethel to Talihina, which also cuts off some forty 
miles to the nearest large trading town- 

School attendance, safe transportation to hospitals, taking crops to 
markets - all are dependent on adequate, safe. roads. 

The Foreman And All The Laborers On 

This Job Were Indians. 

Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma 



The Coast Guard Cutter Tahoe In Northern Waters 
(Photograph through courtesy of U. S. Coast Guard, Washington, D. C. ) 

The name of many an American Indian tribe has been carried ' round 
the world and into the far-flung ports of the seven seas. A number of famous 
Indian tribes are commemorated as names of the vessels flying the flag of the 
United" States Coast Guard. 

The Class A Coast Guard cutters, familiar to all who go down to the 
sea in ships as vessels of mercy and relief, are known by such names as 
Comanche, Shoshone, Mojave, Cayuga, Mohawk, and Kickapoo. These graceful ships 
have from 900 to 1979 tons displacement and range from 160 to 250 feet in length 
They vary from twelve to sixteen feet in draft and carry from two to five guns. 
They regularly patrol all American coastal waters, sail often in foreign waters, 
and maintain arctic patrols in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. They are 
for the most part turbo-electric powered. In addition to bearing names of 
modern American Indian tribes, these cutters are also named for tribes, in his- 


tory. Such names include, among others, Chelan, Itasca, Sebago, Tallapoosa, 
and Escanaba. 

Coast Guard ships - the "Bear" in days of yore, and the "Northland" 
at present - have performed hundreds of merciful services for the natives of 
northern Alaska. Shipments of medical supplies and treatment, transportation 
of reindeer, preservation of the sealing grounds against poachers, rescues of 
parties stranded on ice floes are merely a few of the essential services that 
have marked the long story of hardship and adventure that goes under the title 
of the Bering Sea Patrol. 


The policy of the Indian Service in requiring labor in return for 
gratuities - rations, clothing, wood, for example - issued by the Indian Serv- 
ice or through it, is one which in the past has not been uniformly applied. On 
a few jurisdictions, consequently, a sense of injustice done has developed 
among some of the Indians- To clarify this situation, the Commissioner sent 
out in October a circular reiterating the Service's policy, and suggesting the 
need for a full discussion of the problem with local Indian groups, as well as 
checking with directors of relief agencies through which Indians are receiving 
such gratuitous benefits. 

Meetings held at Rosebud Reservation, South Dakota, in November, show 
how this problem was put up to the local Indians and settled before the peak 
relief period of the year was reached. Representatives from every community on 
the reservation were invited to meet at the Hare School- Mrs. R. K. Heinemann, 
social worker for the reservation, presided. 

The meeting, in which discussions by Indians were full, vigorous, and 
to the point, endorsed the principle of requiring work from able-bodied Indians 
in return for help. In considering the specific question of desirable types of 
work projects for the recipients of relief, it was decided to set up a committee 
which will approve worth-while projects, such as cutting- wood for indigents, 
community garden projects, custodial service of public buildings, and the like. 
An average pay rate of thirty cents per hour was set for man labor, and twenty 
cents per hour for a team. The policy of requiring labor in advance of the re- 
ceipt of commodities was endorsed. It was agreed further that valuations of 
commodities would be made by the Agency office staff on the basis of invoice 
prices- After discussion of equitable distribution methods, the group agreed 
that goods should be distributed on a pro-rated basis of indicated need. 

This meeting furnishes an interesting example of Indian participation 
in reservation problems which were formerly attacked by Agency staffs alone. 
In several Rosebud communities, local welfare committees are taking the respon- 
sibility, with all its attendant problems, of the handling of rations. 



Cahuilla Reservation, Mission Agency, California 

the water level in adjacent meadows, wind ero- 
sion of topsoil is checked. Water from springs 
that bubble out of the solid shelves of granite 
is stored in such huge reservoirs as that on 
the Cahuilla Reservation where a flow of 5,400 
gallons an hour is retained in the 400,000-gal- 
lon masonry reservoir . 

Stock as well as subsistence gardens 
are watered by the flow from this reservoir, 
and the land is better bound together by the 
rise in the level of its "water table" which, 
before the project waB completed, had fallen 
to a disquietingly low level. 

Among the 
works completed in the 
vast and rugged terri- 
tory covered by the CCC- 
Indian Division units 
under Mission Agency, 
in California, is the 
Palm Canyon Dam project 
on the Santa Rosa Reser- 

Completed in 
the summer of 1938, 
this project meets the 
double need of water 
storage and soil con- 
servation. By raising 

Santa Rosa Reservation, 

Mission Agency, California 





(Excerpted from "Book Reviews and Abstracts" by Phoebe O'Neall Faris, 
in "Soil Conservation", monthly magazine of the Soil Conservation Service) 

BEHOLD OUR LAND — By Russell Lord, Boston, 1938, 

This is a background book, for people capable of thinking. It should 
be immediately commended to the schools so that teachers may read it and in one 
way or another use it in building up courses including sound conservation ma- 
terial. Mr. Lord's great story of "soil, air, water, and protoplasm - plant, 
animal, human - all part of the same going concern" is more than a book about 
the land. It gives us a new philosophy of earth use, of depressions and lead- 
ership and the "groping humility" of masses seeking comfort, of despoliation 
of the land and the "free spirit." 

As for the, story itself - it reads like a novel, tells many a tale 
of the people as they surge back and forth across the land - it is absorbing 
and packed with pertinent information. There is a chapter on "elder lands" 
wherein we find sketches of ancient places and peoples, China, the Holy Land 
and Egypt, Mediterranean countries rising to magnificence and falling upon 
harassed and subdued soil, Old Germany with her groves and tribal deities; and 
then the lost splendors of the Incas and the Mayas. All great and glorious 
for a time, but bungling in agriculture; all perished from the earth. This 
chapter on elder lands is excellent background, swiftly told and vigorous - 
the story of ancient man as a despoiler of land. 

And then the New Land, our land, America, United States soil. Guided 
by Russell Lord we look at our country, then and now. Ife follow the western 
migrations and read the account of the gathering of "princely fruits" of the 
soil, of the harvest of wildlife and the death of the trees. Of "wounded grass" 
and encroaching desert, dust, maddened rivers. It would be depressing indeed 
were it not for one thing: As we go along we are shown soil-and-water-conserva- 
tion projects and demonstrations, grass laying the dust, young grass, young 
shrubs, and young trees clothing the wounded slopes, crops on the contour, 
gullies healed, havens for birds and animals - the Soil Conservation Service 
at work with many thousands of farmers who eagerly come to look and go home to 


A highly successful exhibit and sale of Indian crafts work from all 
parts of Oklahoma, Kansas and Texas, was held before Christmas in Oklahoma City 
under the auspices of the Indian Office there. The venture was not only worth- 
while from the point of view of financial returns, but also in showing the types 
of products which are most likely to sell, and in acquainting the local public 
with Indian-made goods of high quality. 



Reviewed By William F- Zuckert, Jr. 

INDIAN CAVALCAD1 -- By Clark Wissler, New York, Sheridan, 1938- 

( H ... the hook is neither history, nor sociology, nor any other kind 
of -ology; merely personal recollections of old-time Indian Reservations." - 
Clark Wissler.) 

The quotation above is a gem of understatement, although it speaks 
the truth in regard to Mr. Wissler 1 8 most recent book, "Indian Cavalcade. 11 In 
compiling this volume Mr. Wissler, outstanding ethnologist, proves his ability 
to select and present vivid material from a half -century of mellowed memories. 
Mr. Wissler limits his memoirs to some five years (1900-1905) of travel and ex- 
perience on ten of the major Indian reservations of the day. With keen insight 
and rare understanding of the many complex problems involved, Mr. Wissler touches 
upon nearly every phase of reservation life: not only from the Indian point of 
view, but also from the viewpoint of the doctor, the school-teacher, the mission- 
ary, the "squaw man", and even the awe-inspiring Washington Office. 

Although the book will be enjoyed by everyone, it will be of particu- 
lar interest to those who have had a more or less intimate contact with the In- 
dian and the Indian Service. 


If the CCC-Indian 
Division is not yet entirely 
streamlined, it is at any rate 
fast developing a high degree 
of "free wheeling." It takes 
a lot less muscle and a lot 
less time to push a rubber - 
tired wheelbarrow over soft 
ground than it does to shove 
around one of the old-time 
steel -wheeled varieties . At 
Fort Peck, Montana, not only 
is friction reduced on the 
barrows, but heavy cement 
mixers are kept from bogging 
down by mounting them on wide pneumatic wheels. Thus rubber-shod, the equip- 
ment will skim over the ground, not permitting the soil to act as an unwanted 
brake. The mixers can be pulled quickly over the highways without damaging or 
biting into the road surfaces. 


By Assistant Surgeon J. R. McGibony, Hospital Administrator 


1 1 mil!!) I iii 1 ! 

The Fort Yuma Hospital In Arizona 

The story of the evolution of the hospital is a picture not only of 
efficient and skillful care of the sick, but of the growth of altruism and 
community -mindedness . 

Next to churches and schools, hospitals are concerned with the larg- 
est welfare activity in America- They have, today, a capital investment of 
four "billion dollars, with expenditures of over seven hundred and fifty mil- 
lions of dollars. The needs of the seven million patients admitted to these 
institutions each year axe met by ninety thousand physicians, seventy thousand 
nurses, and more than six hundred thousand other full-time employees.* 

* MacEachern, M. T. - "Hospital Organization '■and Managemen t'.' Physicians Record 
Company, 161 West Harrison Street, Chicago, Illinois. 


The hospitals and health activities of the Indian Service, while con- 
stituting only a small fraction of these totals, are in a peculiarly promising 
position to serve Indians well and at the same time to make an outstanding con- 
tribution to science and medicine as a whole. 

The Indian Service, serving about 250,000 beneficiaries, maintains, 
exclusive of Alaska, 94 hospitals and sanatoria, with a total of 5,000 beds, on 
an appropriation of $3,000,000. This allows approximately 20 beds per 1,000 
population, as compared with about eight beds per 1,000 for the general popula- 
tion. It must be remembered that the Indians have a mortality rate almost a third 
again as much, and a morbidity probably thrice that of the general population, 
so that with these factors considered the hospital bed ratio among Indians is 
not so advantageous as it might seem. The Service could use, with additional 
personnel, many more beds, especially for the treatment of open caseB of tu- 

In addition to approximately $3,000,000 for specific hospitals, the 
Indian Service spends $2,000,000 for other health activities, including field 
work, making the average expenditure for all medical purposes about $20 per 
capita. In its final analysis, this comparatively modest amount makes it im- 
perative that we exert every effort to stretch the taxpayer's dollar as far as 
possible, while still rendering a service comparable to the best that modern 
medicine has to offer. 

Air View Of The Indian Service Hospital Plant At Shawnee, Oklahoma 


Twin Navajo Babie* In Tuba City Hospital, Arizona 
only one 'out of every 15 of all American citizens had such care. 

The Federal 
Government maintains 
about 5 per cent of all 
registered hospitals, 
with 8 per cent of the 
beds , the average Feder- 
al hospital having 300 
beds, which are 69 per 
cent occupied. The In- 
dian Service operates 
28 per cent of Federal 
hospitals, but only 5 
per cent of the beds, 
giving an average size 
of 52 beds which are 
67 per cent occupied. 

During the 
fiscal year 1938, one 
out of every five eli- 
gible Indians was given 
hospital care, while 

The true measure of the effective operation of a hospital is the suc- 
cessful recovery of the patient; the sense of peace and security given to him 
by the staff; and furthermore, the dissemination by the patient, following dis- 
charge, of intelligent knowledge of hospital and general health procedures. 

Most Indians, due to their low incomes, are unable to pay for their 
own health service, and the public, for its own protection, has of necessity as 
well as altruism, contributed through the Congress, the funds with which we op- 
erate. The realization is growing that the causes of disease are community 
causes, and that the measures of cure are community measures. 

Education is one of the principal functions of a hospital. It is de- 
cidedly incumbent upon Indian Service health personnel to promote an intensive 
educational campaign for prompt treatment of illness and especially for its 
prevention, for therein lies the secret of improvement of the economic level 
of the Indians, without which all Indian programs must fail. Certainly, it i« 
not facetious to remark that "an educated Indian can be sick, but a sick Indian 
cannot be educated." 

The success of a positive Indian program depends upon the closely in- 
terwoven cooperation of all workers in health, education, and other divisions 
of the Service, and on the intensive application of each of us to that part of 
the program which falls to us. 





Reports from the 
CCC-ID at Shawnee Agency in 
Oklahoma, show advances in 
varied lines of activity. 
Nineteen projects, including 
garage and diversion dam con- 
struction, map making and ter- 
racing have been completed. 
Work on seven old projects 
has continued. Two new trac- 
tors have been added to the 
equipment of the uni t . 

In addition to the 

Group Of Sac And Fox Indians Digging A Pinal enrollee recreational program 
Outlet Check Dam For A Series Of Baffles 

begun last year, a series of 
talks on health, farming, 
stock raising and safety was 
given as part of the educa- 
tional program- This new 
feature is all the more strik- 
ing because of the lack of a 
camp at the agency and the 
consequent great distance the 
enrollees had to travel to 
participate in these meeting* 

A remarkable safety re- 
cord has been established and 
First-Aid Certificates have 
been issued to 40 per cent of 
the enrollees • 

Hew Tractor And Angle Dozer In Action 


Recent visitors to the Washington Office have included the following: 
John G. Hunter, Superintendent, Fort Peck Agency, Montana; A. M. Landman, Super- 
intendent, Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Oklahoma.: Ernest R. McCray, Superin- 
tendent, San Carlos Agency, Arizona, who was accompanied by a tribal delegation 
which included Victor Kindelay, Harry Margo, Donald Mcintosh, Sr., and Harry L. 
Stevens; and F. J. Scott, Superintendent, Seminole Agency, Florida. 

Other visitors have included Mr . A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator, 
Oklahoma; Mr. Ben Dwight, Field Agent, Oklahoma; Oran Curry, Chairman of the 
Uintah and Ouray Tribal Council, Utah; and Boyd Jackson and Dice Crane, tribal 
delegates from Klamath Agency, Oregon- 


By George A. MacPherson, Senior Foreman, New York Agency, New York.* 

I have a very vivid memory of a dance I saw at the Big Cove on the 
Eastern Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina last spring. My Indian compan- 
ion and I were invited to attend by the late William Pheasant, a well-known In- 
dian resident of the Cove. 

Pheasant's log cabin stood out in a field near the end of a rock- 
ribbed road- As we approached the building we saw a cluster of Indians stand- 
ing about the doorway. The near-full moon shone down on the cabin, making 
dark shadows seem all the more black. 

Inside the cabin's single room a welcome fire crackled in the fire- 
place. Curious eyes stared at me as the only white man present, but room was 
quickly made for me by the fire. Bronze-skinned men, women and children sat 
crowded on beds and'benches close to the warmth of the blaze. The comings and 
goings, the scraping music from a violin, the strange Cherokee talk - all left 
me rather at a loss for the moment. 

13y the dim light of a smoky oil lamp resting on a corner shelf, I 
surveyed the room. There was poverty here aplenty'. Dark rough boards cover- 
ing the logs had been papered sometime in the past with pages from a catalog 
and with newspapers. Pictures and headlines made designs which danced in the 
firelight. Three beds, some benches and a battered old trunk comprised the 
noticeable furniture equipment. 

No one seemed to be dancing. I was informed that we were waiting 
for William Long to appear with his drum. 

I gave a hand to the work of dismantling and carrying out the beds - 
with the exception of one - thereby making more room for the dancers. Broad 
smiles began to appear in anticipation of the pleasant time to come. Commo- 
tion outside indicated Mr. Long's arrival. I was given to understand that the 
ceremonies would begin as soon as five expectant dancers put in an appearance. 

In the meantime a lively tune was turned off by the fiddler, and al- 
most before realizing what was afoot, I was drawn into the familiar steps of 
the "Virginia Reel." Middle-aged women, smiling girls, and some older men 
took part: everyone was welcome. 

It was nearly midnight when the music suddenly stopped. Looking 
through a square hole in the logs, which served as a window, we could see five 

* Mr. MacPherson was formerly employed with the National Park Service as for- 
ester, with headquarters at Richmond, Virginia- 


blanket-wrapped figures approaching single-file in the moonlight . As they en- 
tered, I noticed that each dancer wore a grotesque Benches were provided; 
the dancers took seats in a row as they entered, one at a time. 

Mr. Long then began tuning his tom-tom which, I was informed, was 
filled with water. After a preliminary soft tapping and shaking, the instru- 
ment finally responded with the desired pitch. 

A masked Indian dancer took the floor and the Buggerman Dance bee;an. 
Still beating the drum while the performance continued, Mr. Long explained to 
me that the dance was very old and represented young braves who, acting in pan- 
tomime, portrayed experiences and adventures which they had met with while for- 
aging far from home. One after another the dancers took the floor, each act- 
ing his part with more or less skill, each trying to outdo the other in per- 

I asked Mr. Long about the interesting masks. He said that he had 
made them himself. He informed me also that he had filled orders for masks 
for museums in Europe as well as in America- 

After this dance had ended a cask was placed in the middle of the 
floor. Men and women formed a circle and danced to the beat of the drum. Some 
of the women had tied to their ankles gourd rattles which added a subtle ac- 
companiment to the drum beats. This dance, about which I was able to learn lit- 
tle, was called the Friendship Dance. 

It grew late; I was forced to leave before the dance had ended. Shak- 
ing hands with ray new-found friends, my companion and I left for home, with the 
sound of Cherokee music and Cherokee dances ringing in our ears. 


Excavation of a room in the prehistoric stone ruins in Wupatki Na- 
tional Monument in Arizona has yielded, in addition to imperishable artifacts 
of pottery and stone, a few fragments of woven cotton cloth, including one 
with two stripes dyed dark brown. From tree-ring dating, it is certainly 
known that the room was occupied in 1168 A-D. 

Other materials found in these ruins include sea shells from the Gulf 
of California, remains of squash shells and squash seeds, corncobs, a walnut 
shell, cane cigarettes, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, a boll of native cotton and 
sandals woven from leaves of the yucca plant. 

The shells probably were traded from tribe to tribe for several hun- 
dred miles, as shell from the Gulf of California is quite common in Southwes- 
tern prehistoric ruins. Evidently the occupants of Wupatki raised corn, squash, 
pumpkins, lima beans and cotton. Walnuts grow wild nearby. Reprinted from 
Fact s and Artifacts . Nat ional Park Service. 



The prize beef cow on the whole Pima jurisdiction last year was raised 
by a Pima boy not more than twelve years old. 

Lloyd James, a student at the Casa Blanca Day School, became interested 
in cattle through his 4-H Club. He raised one calf successfully, and was given 
another on a regular repayment contract. His first calf was ready to compete 
at the local fair a year ago, but transportation could not be arranged, so Lloyd 
waited eagerly another year to show off his two-year-old heifer. She captured 
the blue ribbon and was judged the best beef cow not only in the village of 
Sweetwater, but over the whole Pima jurisdiction. 

Last spring Lloyd branched out into chickens. He received twelve 
baby chicks, which like other 4-H members, he paid for by picking cotton. Sum- 
mer came and Lloyd was to visit his grandmother at Chuechu. He wanted to finance 
his trip and to have his own money to spend: how to do it? He solved the prob- 
lem by boxing up four of his fat fryers, and boarding a lumber wagon that was 
crunching down the road toward Chuechu. He sold the cockerels and proceeded 
merrily to his grandmother's with $2.00 jingling in his pockets- 

Like other Pima parents, Lloyd's father and mother have been glad to 
help their boy learn good farming and stock-raising methods. Lloyd is back in 
school this year, busy after school hours with his hens, which have now started 
laying eggs, and his cows. 


News has come of the death of James Todome, Kiowa, and one of Chilocco 
School's first students, at the age of seventy. He was one of the last survivors 
of Company L, an Indian company which served under General Hugh Scott at Fort 
Sill, Oklahoma. James Todome died at his home near Mountain View, Oklahoma- 



First Aid Class Held At Flat - 
head ( Montana ) The second meeting 
of the newly started first-aid. class 
was held in the camp study room this 
past Thursday- This room is well- 
lighted, both from the windows on 
the south and from the well-placed 
electric lights. With plenty of 
blackboards, tables and chairs, the > 
instructor found this room a much 
better place to hold classes than 
in the recreation hall where the 
first class was held. Charts, text- 
books for each student, practice 
bandage, compresses and splints are 
all in readiness for the course. 
Twenty-three enrolled men and women 
are attending the first -aid class 
at Valley Creek Camp. As soon as 
an instructor is available, a course 
will be started at the north end of 
the reservation for the benefit of a 
family camp there. 

At the recreational meeting 
held recently, many programs were 
discussed. It was decided to start 
an archery club, develop boxing, 
and build equipment for shuffle 
board- Eugen e L. Maillet . 

River Jetty Work At Pierre In- 
dian School ( South Dakota ) The ex- 
tension of our jetty is beginning 
to show up now in pretty good shape- 
We are centering practically our en- 
tire force on the extension of our 
jetty project. We feel that now we 
will get this part of our project 
completed (Jetty 133-17A) and in per- 
fect shape for the break-up and- 
heavy ice flow in the early spring. 
S.J. Wood , F oreman - 

Improving Safety Condition s At 
Wind River ( Wyoming ) During the 

safety meetings which axe held at the 
camp each week, notes have been taken 
and turned in to the camp assistant. 
The camp assistant then writes a mem- 
orandum to the foreman at the various 
camps to suggest improvements, com- 
menting on the subjects which had been 
brought up at the previous meeting. 
It is thought that this will be a very 
helpful method of improving the safety 
conditions in the camps- Murrel L. 
Gordon , Jr., Clerk . 

Recreational Activitie s At Win - 
nebago ( Nebraska ) Due to the cold 
weather we have been having, all rec- 
reational activities have been 
limited to the inside, such as ping 
pong, cards, checkers, listening to 
the radio and reading books and mag- 
azines. Norman F . Lessor , Senior 
Foreman . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Tomah 
( Wisconsin ) During the past week we 
have been very busy here in Wiscon- 
sin. We are trying to get as much 
maintenance work done on the truck 
trails as possible before the cold 
weather sets in. Our trails are in 
good condition and a large amount of 
gravel has been hauled and spread on 
the trails. 

Many of the unsitely stubs and 
old logs that have lain by the side 
of the trail have been cut and burned 
on the fire hazard reduction project. 
All of the stubs and logs that have 
any value for stove wood has been 
hauled to the CCC garage here at the 
camp and will be cut and used for 
heating the CCC buildings. In gener- 
al, all the work has progressed very 
rapidly here at Stockbridge. Arvid 
B. Miller , Leader . 



Truck Trail Construction At Col - 
ville ( Washington ) Our work has been 
devoted chiefly to right-of-way clear- 
ance. There are a number of large 
trees in the path of the right-of- 
way- These have to be removed. 

The Hay den Creek Truck Trail has 
been progressing. The Hay den crew 
will soon be down to try their skill 
along with the rest of the boys on 
the Mose Meadow Project. Robert 
White , Camp Clerk . 

Vocational Education At Salem 
School ( Oregon ) The classes being 
held for instruction in electric 
welding and painting are not valuable 
only from an educational standpoint, 
but also because it impresses on the 
minds of the enrollees the importance 
of having shovels, hammers, saws, and 
so forth, used on the project and in 
the field in first-class condition. 
By having their tools in good condi- 
tion, their work is made easier. One 
enrollee mad/ the remark that "a 
sharp, pointed shovel was lighter to 
carry in at night than one which is 
unpointed and blunt." James L. Shaw - 
ver . 

Dike Maintenance At Tulallp (Wa- 
shington ) The Swinomish Dike Mainte- 
nance Project is now completed as 
originally planned and in general, a 
very good job has been done. The 
retaining walls, while constructed 
entirely of wood, should give sever- 
al years of protection against ero- 

On the March Drainage Project: 
the men are clearing the right-of- 
way. About three-fifths is now 
cleared and will be ready for the ex- 
cavation work in about ten days. 
Theodore Lozeau . R anger . 

Work Progressing At Umatilla 
( Oregon ) The field work is progress- 

3 9088 01625 0524 

ing very nicely. The fireplace being 
built on the camp ground is nearing 
completion. Work is beinc done on 
the dam project. Several dams 
are being constructed. The men at 
Burns are progressing with their small 
reservoirs. Oscar K. Baton . 

Work At Fort Berthold ( North 
Dakota ) The bridge timber for the 
Little Missouri Crossing is being 
hauled. It is necessary to have 
this timber before the work can be- 
gin. At headquarters, other prepara- 
tions are in progress: repairing of 
the pile driving apparatus and the 
building of a small shack for the 
storage of tools. The work, no doubt, 
will be in full swing before long. 
Charles Huber, Leader . 

Fire Hazard Reduction At Red 
Lake ( Minnesota ) Trail-side clean- 
up on the Sandy Lake Trail is coming 
along nicely. They are doing a fine 
job of it. All the old dead timber 
which can be used for cord wood is 
being piled up alongside the road. 
The rest of the brush and old stumps 
are being burned. This trail will 
make an excellent fire break. 0. V. 
Fink , Princip al Foreman ■ 

Activities At Consolidated Chip- 
pewa ( Minnesota ) Most of our work 
here recently has been confined to 
getting our trails into shape for 
winter. The barracks and garages 
are in the process of being "winter- 
ised." Anti-freeze is being put in 
the trucks. Last, but not least, 
has been the issuance of "long- 
handled and double-barreled under- 
wear and other warm woolen clothing 
to an appreciative crew. Winter is 
really here. Leo M. Smith, Senior 
Foreman ■ 

Safety Discussion At Great 
Lakes ( Wisconsin ) The safety meet- 
ing was attended by the overhead